India is one of the ancient civilizations in the world & presently the biggest democracy of the world. The history of India goes back to 3000 B.C. when the inhabitants of the Indus river valley developed an urban culture, which was based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. India covers an area of 32,87,263 sq km, extending from the snow-covered Himalayan heights to the tropical rain forests of the south. As the seventh largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west. India is the land of a varied rich cultural heritage with thousands of languages spoken. A place where you find a peace of mind. A place where religion is in its flow of life, where everything is sacred... from mountains to rivers, trees to animals, life starts with a full desirous celebration & ends up in a spiritual involvement.
The Constitution of India, the longest and the most exhaustive constitution of any independent nation in the world, came into force on January 26, 1950. The preamble of the constitution defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. The legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha, a permanent body, has 245 members serving staggered six year terms. Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the state's population. 543 of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote to represent individual constituencies for five year terms. The other two members are nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community if the President is of the opinion that community is not adequately represented. India has a three tier judiciary system Supreme court, High court & a number of trial courts.
India, a union of states has its President as the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 7 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc.
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